Cultism: NRMs

·         Cult- a social group defined by their religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or common interest in a particular personality, object or goal. The very idea of cults is something popularly consider controversial due to such events as the People’s Temple mass suicide and terrorist attacks such as the Subway Sarin Incident caused by the…

The Enclosed City of Lahore

The Walled City of Lahore maybe have been founded in 2,000 BCE, however it is unknown for certain. But as late as 1864, the Lahori Mandi area had been known among the old folk of the Walled City as the mud fort. Along Lahori Bazaar, a short distance from Chowk Chakla, the street opens slightly,…

Spartan Culture

Sparta was an ancient Greek state located in the present day region of Laconia. The population of Sparta consisted of three main groups: The Spartans, who were citizens, the Helots who were slaves and the Perioeci, who were neither slaves nor citizens. All healthy male Spartan citizens participated in the compulsory state-sponsored education system, called…

Himalayas

The most characteristic features of the Himalayas are their soaring heights, steep-sided jagged peaks, valley and alpine glaciers often of stupendous size, topography (the arrangement of both natural and artificial elements) deeply cut by erosion, seemingly unfathomable river gorges and complex geologic structure, Viewed from the south, the Himalayas appear as a gigantic crescent with…

Could we live Underground?

Surprisingly there are already millions of people living underground due to the lack of space above ground. An example of this is in Singapore, which is one of the most crowded countries on the planet. Its population of nearly 5.5 million people is squeezed into a city state that covers just 710 sq km. It…

Castle Anatomy

The old-fashioned castles were mostly made of stone, mortar and wood. Early castles relied on the surrounding landscape to provide much of the protection and were built on hills of “mottes”, surrounded by a high, wooden palisade, motte and bailey castles were used widely until the Norman invasion of 1066. These fortifications proved too easy…

Mining

At the end of the 13th century capital money started going towards mining and more sophisticated machinery is installed in underground mining, which resulted in reaching great depths. The wider application of horse-power was necessary for draining water out of these deep shafts. By the 14th century, the majority of the accessible ore deposits were…

Russian Architecture

For most of its history, Russian architecture has been predominantly religious. Churches were for centuries the only buildings to be constructed of stone, and today they are almost the only buildings that remain from its ancient past. The basic elements of Russian church design emerged fairly early, around the eleventh century. The plan is generally…

Indian Government (pre and post British Empire)

The Mughals were the richest dynasty to have ever existed, originating in 1526 when Babar (1482-1530), a Turkish-Mongol prince from Afghanistan, invaded India in 1526. During the Mughal era, the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries (people who would pay money to the Mughal Empire) and, later on, the rising…

The Indian Revolt of 1857

The sepoys were local soldiers, the majority Hindus or Muslims, who were recruited into the India Tea Company’s army. Just before the rebellion, there were over 300,000 sepoys in the army, compared to about 50,000 British. After the annexation of Oudh (Awadh) by the East India Company in 1856 under the Doctrine of Lapse, many…

Russian Revolts (1905-1917)

Between 1905 and 1917 there was great unrest in Russian which was directed at the autocracy, the Tsars, by the peasants. While the revolt in 1905 is a failure, the two 1917 revolts led to the rise of the Soviet Union and the assassination of the Emperor Nicholas II and his family. The Moscow uprising,…

The Exciting World of Underground Water

Water can exist underground in two forms: groundwater and subterranean rivers. Groundwater is the water present in soil and in the cracks of rocks. When a rock can hold a quantity of water that is big enough to be used commercially it is called an aquifer. The depth at which soil or fractures in rock…