Could we live Underground?

Surprisingly there are already millions of people living underground due to the lack of space above ground. An example of this is in Singapore, which is one of the most crowded countries on the planet. Its population of nearly 5.5 million people is squeezed into a city state that covers just 710 sq km. It…

Castle Anatomy

The old-fashioned castles were mostly made of stone, mortar and wood. Early castles relied on the surrounding landscape to provide much of the protection and were built on hills of “mottes”, surrounded by a high, wooden palisade, motte and bailey castles were used widely until the Norman invasion of 1066. These fortifications proved too easy…

Mining

At the end of the 13th century capital money started going towards mining and more sophisticated machinery is installed in underground mining, which resulted in reaching great depths. The wider application of horse-power was necessary for draining water out of these deep shafts. By the 14th century, the majority of the accessible ore deposits were…

Russian Architecture

For most of its history, Russian architecture has been predominantly religious. Churches were for centuries the only buildings to be constructed of stone, and today they are almost the only buildings that remain from its ancient past. The basic elements of Russian church design emerged fairly early, around the eleventh century. The plan is generally…

Indian Government (pre and post British Empire)

The Mughals were the richest dynasty to have ever existed, originating in 1526 when Babar (1482-1530), a Turkish-Mongol prince from Afghanistan, invaded India in 1526. During the Mughal era, the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries (people who would pay money to the Mughal Empire) and, later on, the rising…